In einem Papier von 2016 schreiben die ungarischen Zentralbanker István Ábel, Kristóf Lehmann und Attila Tapaszti über "The controversial treatment of money and banks in macroeconomics" (Quelle). Das Papier reiht sich ein in die Veröffentlichungen der Zentralbanken zum Thema Geldschöpfung, welche mit dem Papier der Bank of England (2014) ihren Anfang nahmen und auch zu einer Publikation der Bundesbank im Jahr 2017 führten.
Hier ist der Abstract der lesenswerten Schrift von Abel et al. (Hervorhebung des letzten Satzes durch uns):
This paper offers a basic overview of the practical aspects of money creation. A briefpresentation of the history of money and a critical summary of the commonly accepted theories highlight the current understanding of the emergence andoperating characteristics of money in the modern economy. We follow the distinctionbetween inside and outside money creation. Inside money is jointly determined by the private sector’s need for money, together with the banking system’s money creation potential. This paper focuses on inside money along the lines of theendogenous money theory. We demonstrate the main features of money flows and the money created by banks. Outside money is created by the state (not the privatesector), and its creation can only be indirectly influenced by the money demand of the private sector. A brief overview of the historical process of the emergence of money provides a framework to assess and compare the main elements of the chartalist and metallist concepts of money. Concerning the current debates about the role of the banks in money creation, we compare three theories focusing on money creation. These three theories treat the role of banks in money creation differently. The endogenous money theory based on a convincing description of money flows offers a reliable interpretation of the current monetary policy. One striking conclusion of the endogenous money theory is that banks do not need savings in advance to lend, as lending in itself is considered money creation.